A Brief History of the Chicago Marthoma Church

The Marthoma Church has been a part of India for thousands of years. It was founded by St. Thomas at 52 Ad at 7 locations throughout what will later become Kerala.

Beliefs and Symbols of the Marthoma Church

The symbols of the Marthoma Church have links to both the Christian heritage and the Hindu heritage of the Marthoma Church and Kerala

Falun Gong: Religious Persecution of China

Since the late 1990s, Falun Gong/Falun Dafa has been persecuted by the Chinese government. Practitioners have been used in illegal organ donations and have even been tortured.

The Effects of Debt

Debt levels have been steadily increasing since 2008. The effects of massive levels of debt will adversely effect the global economy and the psycological wellbeing of the populace

Sonny: Mobile Game Review

This game is a renewal of the Sonny games on Armorgames.com. The game rehashes the story of Sonny and adds new characters to the mix.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Falun Gong: Religious Persecution in China

History of Falun Gong

At the height of the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong had it banned due to its links to ancient Chinese religion, but the ban was removed when a lab claimed to have found qigong energy (life energy). In the 1970s, the Chinese government began promoting qigong, a series of exercises designed to improve physical and spiritual health, to promote traditional Chinese medicine. From the late 1970s to the 1990s, millions of Chinese were drawn to qigong due to the purported health benefits, which resulted in many qigong organizations, magazines and much more.

In 1992, Li Hongzhi founded Falun Gong/Falun Dafa, which means discipline of the Dharma wheel. Li promised to install purifying wheels in the bodies of his followers to free them from all physical issues.

The government initially welcomed Falun Gong due to its core values of honesty, compassion and forbearance. It also filled the spiritual vacuum left by the Cultural Revolution, which resulted in Falun Dafa gaining upward of 100 million followers by the end of 1998. This all changed when state-run media began criticizing Falun Gong, which lead to 20,000+ practitioners peacefully protesting at the Zhongnanhai Leadership Compound in Beijing. The size of the protest surprised Chinese leadership and resulted in them banning the movement, even going so far as calling it a “heretical cult”.  

China was not initially successful in suppressing the movement due to Falun Gong practitioners moving to the United States and Canada. Falun Gong practitioners told Western media that China was threatening their religious freedom. The Western media dropped coverage on the persecution of Falun Gong because the Chinese government claimed that Falun Gong was a cult and they claimed that members immolated themselves in Tiananmen Square in 2001. 

protest to stop persecution of Falun Gong in New York City
Beliefs of Falun Dafa
Falun Gong heavily draws from both Buddhism and Taoism, much like Buddhism, Falun Gong teaches that desire is the source of all suffering and attachments prevent practitioners from ending the reincarnation cycle. Falun Gong states that everyone accumulates karma and virtue throughout their lifetime, the ratio of virtue to karma will decide their next life.

To improve upon the ratio of virtue and karma, practitioners must increase their levels of Xinxing, which is the relinquishing of all immoral thoughts and it includes the 3 cosmic qualities of Zhen (Truth), Shan (Compassion) and Ren (Forbearance/Tolerance). According to Ian Adam’s “The Theories and Practices of Li Hongzhi:  Power of the Wheel the Falun Gong Revolution, he writes that Ren is very similar to the Christian value of charity, except Falun Gong practitioners are complete pacifists; they would not fight even in the direst circumstances.

From Taoism, Falun Dafa took the idea of inner alchemy, which focuses on the cultivation of Qi energy; this can be achieved by meditating and self-improvement, which results in accumulation of gong energy. Cultivation of gong energy leads to communion with spirits that will advise you, though Li Hongzhi warns that some of these spirits are evil.  

Persecution of Falun Gong
Since the turn of the century, the Chinese government has been relentlessly persecuting Falun Dafa, a 2006 report from the UN reported that 2/3 of Chinese torture cases were Falun Dafa practitioners. The persecution of Falun Gong practitioners has also been documented by the following: Amnesty International, the U.S State Department, The Human Rights Watch, The U.S Commission on International Religious Freedom, and other NGOs.

The Chinese Communist government fears anything that removes the people’s allegiance to the CCP, and they believe the diversity of thought is a threat to the communist regime. As a result, Falun Gong beliefs and practices are the most censored terms on China’s intranet.

Moreover, the Chinese government openly admits that they use the organs of executed criminals for organ donations; Falun Gong practitioners are also a source of many of these organs, though there is still a gap between organ donations vs. total transplants

Swoon Films: The Persecution of Falun Gong

All in all, Falun Dafa was founded by Li Hongzhi in 1992. The CCP welcomed its presence until the 1999 protest, which scared the Communist Party into persecuting and smearing Falun Dafa. Falun Gong draws heavily from Buddhism and Taoism and practitioners are pacifists until death. Finally, because Falun Dafa offers ideas that are different from that of the Chinese Communist Party, Falun Gong has become one of the most censored terms on the Chinese intranet and the government is currently using them for unethical organ transplants.  

Works Cited

Ownby, David. “Falun Gong.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 25 May 2016, www.britannica.com/topic/Falun-Gong.
Stenudd, Stefan. What Is Qi Energy?, Qi Energy Exercises, www.qienergyexercises.com/what-is-qi-energy.htm.
“The Theories and Practices of Li Hongzhi.” Power of the Wheel the Falun Gong Revolution, by Ian Adams et al., Stoddart, 2001, pp. 75–115.
“WHAT IS FALUN GONG?” Faluninfo, Falun Dafa Info Center, faluninfo.net/what-is-falun-gong-2/.
“What Is Falun Gong?” GotQuestions.org, GotQuestions.org, 28 June 2017, www.gotquestions.org/Falun-Gong.html.

Winter, Max. “Falun Gong (Spiritual Movement).” Research Starters, Ebscohost, 2019, eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=92aaeb47-b47f-47d8-ad5e-237ede651e1a%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNwaWQmY3VzdGlkPXM5MDU4NTU1JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=87321420&db=ers.
United States. Cong. Committee- Executive Commission on China Falun Gong in China: Review and Update  112th Cong. 2nd sess. Washington: GPO, 2013

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

The Beliefs and Symbols of the Marthoma Church

The Marthoma Church was created 2000 years ago in the Indian province that would later be known as Kerala. The Church’s proximity to Hinduism and relative isolation from other Christian denominations in its infancy played a major role in shaping its beliefs. The later influence of both Catholics and Protestants helped shape the symbols and even the logo of the Marthoma Church. The worship of the church and its sacraments also have a traceable lineage. 

To learn about the history of the Marthoma Church, click here


The Marthoma Church uses the St. James Liturgy in its weekly worship because it helps the worshipper become spiritual and it reminds us of the message of salvation. One major feature is the Nicene Creed, which defines the beliefs of the Christian faith and explains how Christians are able to worship a God that is also 3 beings. It was created in 325 AD in Nicea and it is currently in use by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, and various Protestant Denominations.
When the service starts, the curtain, illustrating the separation of heaven and earth, is moved, exposing the madbaha(altar). It faces the east because when Christ returns, he will come from the east and move to the west. Incense is used to symbolize the presence of God and it was used to represent respect.
Image of Seven Sacraments


The word sacrament comes from the Latin word, sacromentum, which means sacred. The church believes in 7 sacraments, which are the following:
  • Mamodisa (Baptism): The church encourages child baptism and during the baptism, the parents take an oath stating that they will raise the child to follow Christ.
  • Confirmation: Confirmation takes place when the child becomes 12. This is when the child declares that he/she will follow Christ in from of the congregation. This sacrament complements baptism because it shows the community that the parents fulfilled their oath and the child can now participate in the Holy Qurbana.
  • Confession: Confession is the acknowledgement of one’s sins and asking for forgiveness from God. Unlike Catholics, marthomites believe that confession is between you and God, there is no priest involved.
  • Holy Qurbana (Holy Communion): Qurbana is East Syriac for sacrifice, and it is typically referencing to the last supper. While the Catholic church believes in transubstantiation and Lutherans believe in consubstantiation, the Marthoma church believes that partaking in the Holy Qurbana is that God’s grace is given to the individual. This cannot be verbalized and is used to define one’s experience during communion.
  • Marriage: In Indian culture, marriage is not only the union of 2 people, it is also the union of families. During the ceremony, the bride and groom are blessed by God to start a family and it is a covenant between the man and the woman to be together until death. This sacrament is optional
  • Ordination: Ordination is an optional sacrament that separates a man from his peers to become an Aachen(priest).
  • Unction: Unction is the anointing of the sick and elderly with oil to allow God’s touch to be with them. It is also called the Sacrament of Lamps because the early church used lamps to complete this sacrament.
Marthoma Church Logo

The Logo

The logo of the Marthoma Church(seen above) consists of the following:
  • Lotus Flower: This represents holy living and it is a reminder to believers to be holy
  • Hand Lamp: This reminds believers to be lights to the world and bring followers to Christ. This symbol also reminds believers to study the Scriptures.
  • Ashoka Chakra: This is also seen on the Indian Flag and it represents the Church's roots in India. The chakra is representative of the cosmic order and life. The placement of the chakra in the center of the cross represents that life finds its ultimate purpose and salvation in Christ.
  • Motto: The motto, "Lighted to Lighten" is a reminder to the believers that Christ chose them to bring others to Christ.
  • Cross: The cross is placed in the middle of the logo represents that Christ is in the center of the Church's mission and to proclaim that all can come to Christ and be saved.

All in all, The Marthoma Church's proximity to Hinduism and the later Catholic and Protestant influence has played a role in defining the beliefs of the church today. It is a church native to India and will continue to be "Lighted to Lighten" for years to come.

Works Cited

“SACRAMENT OF UNCTION OF THE SICK .” Sacraments of the Eucharist, 2014, www.copticchurch.net/topics/thecopticchurch/sacraments/5_unction_sick.html.
“Story behind the Logo.” Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, marthoma.in/the-church/story-behind-the-logo/.
Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Nicene Creed.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 22 Mar. 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/Nicene-Creed.
“Mar Thoma Sacraments.” Marthoma Church, www.mtcjpr.org/?page_id=211.
“Sacraments.” Canadian Mar Thoma Church Toronto - Sacraments, Canadian Mar Thoma Church Toronto, www.canadianmarthomachurch.com/pages.aspx?section=sub&ID=57.
“Confirmation - Encyclopedia Volume - Catholic Encyclopedia.” Catholic Online, Catholic Online, www.catholic.org/encyclopedia/view.php?id=3247.
“The Mar Thoma Syrian Church The Holy Qurbana: A Study Material .” Marthoma Church, Marthoma Church, www.ctmarthoma.org/uploads/3/7/8/0/37804233/holy_qurbana_training_notes.pdf.

A Brief History of the Marthoma Church

Church Origins

Tradition dictates that in 52 AD, St. Thomas arrived on a trading vessel from Alexandria to Kodungallur, which was an early haven for Jews of the diaspora. He first went to the Jews of Kerala and then to the Gentiles. He had erected seven churches in the following locations:
  • Kodungallur
  • Chavakad (Palur)
  • Parur near Alwaye
  • Gakamangalam
  • Niranam
  • Nilakkal (Chayal)
  • Quilon (Kalyan)
The Apostle Thomas ordained two bishops, Kepha and Paul, for Malabar and Coromandal (Mylapore). On Dec. 19th, 72 AD, he was impaled while praying in Mylapore.
The St. Thomas Christians (Nazranis) accepted the caste system. The rulers regarded them as a high caste and they were called “Nazarani Mappilas” (son of kings, or first kings). The Nasranis also had a sizable military force, and they protected the lower castes. Their status rivaled that of the kings. 
Locations of the first 7 Marthoma Churches
Locations of the Original Churches

Migrations to Malabar

Christians from all over the world journeyed to Malabar to escape persecution. In 293 AD, seventy-two families from Kaveripoopatanam moved to what will be modern day Kollam. Moreover, In AD 345, Thomas of Cana (Knaye Thommen) brought 400 Christians from Nineveh, Jerusalem, and Baghdad. The reason for their immigration to Kerala is unknown, but they were generously received by Cheruman Perumal, the ruler of Crangalore.
Cheruman Perumal gave Thomas and his people 72 privileges that were inscribed on 2 sets of copper plates (cheppeds). The original plates existed until 1498, though many copies abound, and his people
Copy of a chepad handed to Knaye Thommen
Copy of One of the Chepads
became known as the Kananaya Christians.
The Church maintained a cordial relationship with the Church of Persia. In 825 AD, a group of Persian immigrants led by Marwan Sabrisa and two bishops, Mar Sapo and Mar Prodh, landed in Quilon.

Portuguese Takeover

In 1502, Vasco De Gama found Christians in India and they asked him for protection from the Mahomedans. He was presented with a scepter, which made them loyal to Portugal. This led to the Portuguese establishing power in the 16th and 17th Centuries.
In 1592, Archbishop Alexio de Menezes arrived in Goa and convened the Synod of Diamper (Udayamperoor) to establish the dominance of Rome. Representatives were sent to various congregations to burn ancient Nazrani texts and impose Catholic rule.
The Portuguese had created dioceses in Goa and Cochin in order to convert the Nazrani Christians to Catholicism.

Divisions within the St. Thomas Church

After 54 years of Catholic rule, the Nestorian church in Persia sent a bishop to the Chaldean Church. The bishop was captured by the Portuguese and thrown in prison, where he died under duress.
Enraged by his death, two thousand Malankara Christians rose up under the leadership of Archdeacon Thomas and took an oath proclaiming independence from Rome. This oath became known as the Koonan Kurishu Sathyam(Bent Cross Oath).
In 1665, Patriarch Mar Gregorius consecrated Archdeacon Thomas to Mar Thoma the First, the first Indian Metropolitan of the Malankara Church.
Mar Gregorius's arrival in Kerala created a schism within the St. Thomas Church. dividing the church into East Syrians(Puthenkoor) and West Syrians(Pazhayakoor). The East Syrians consisted of the Syro Malabar Church. The West Syrian division consisted of the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church.
Ancient Christains in India

The Reformation

Years later, Palakunnu Abraham Malpan (Malpan means professor) and Kaithayil Geevarghese Malpan were influenced by Anglican missionaries and they became concerned about the well-being of the Malankara Church and wanted to start a revival. They did not want to divide the church, they wanted to reform it. The main tenants of this reformation were as follows:
  • Removing Catholic Influences from the church
  • Sole Mediation of Christ
In 1836, he translated the Holy Qurbana from Syriac to Malayalam and he got rid of prayers to the saints, starting the Reformation. In 1841, a missionary by the name of William Bailey translated the Bible from Syriac to Malayalam, fueling the flames of the Reformation within the Malankara Church.
Metropolitan Chepat Mar Dionysius was not willing to accept these reforms and excommunicated Abraham Malpan from the church. Therefore, he went to his home parish in Maramon, where the congregation supported him. Abraham realized that he needed a bishop in order for the Reformation to gain momentum, so he sent his nephew, Deacon Mathew, to the Patriarch in Mardin. Mathew was consecrated as Mathew Mar Athanasius and he arrived in Cochin in 1843 with the backing of the Patriarch himself. Mar Dionysius opposed this and in 1852, Mathews Mar Athanasius received a royal proclamation declaring him the head of the Malankara Church. In 1868, Mathews Mar Athanasius ordained Abraham Malpan’s son to be Thomas mar Athanasius.
Years later, Joseph Ramban of Pulikottil, an opponent of the reformation, went to the Patriarch of Antioch, Peter III, and was ordained as Joseph Mar Dionysius and convened the Synod of Mulanthuruthy in 1876, where the church accepted the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch. Mathews Mar Athanasius died in 1877, leading to Thomas mar Athanasius to be the Metropolitan of the Malankara Church. After years of court cases, in 1889, the courts decided that Joseph Mar Dionysius was the true head of the Malankara Church, resulting in the excommunication of Thomas Mar Athanasius. After years of litigation, the reform movement only gained the Maramon, Kozhencherry, and the Kottarakara church. 

If you are interested in learning about the beliefs and practices of the Marthoma Church, click here.

The Church Today

Because of the faith of these reformists, the Marthoma Church currently has 1223 parishes divided into 13 dioceses all over the world with 852 priests in active duty. The church believes in Prima Scriptura, which means that the Bible is above all other sources. This is different from Sola Scriptura because it does not reject other sources.
Church Missions

Since 2003, the church has been working with the Choctaw and the Houma tribes in Alabama, Louisiana, and Oklahoma to reach out to foster faith and to provide mentoring for the parents and local leaders. Medical missions such as Home for the Homeless and foster care. For the past 6 years, restoration efforts were put in place to repair damage caused by Katrina for the Houma Indians in Dulac, Louisiana.

The Urban Mission Project aims to bring awareness to our members of the complex factors that influence poverty in poor urban communities ravaged by crime, poor education systems and homelessness.

The Diocese of North America and Europe has recently started the “Light to Life” project. This project aims to ensure that children in India obtain access to food, water, shelter and an education. Anyone can be a sponsor for these children. Each sponsor will be assigned a child and they will receive updates on their progress. Social workers will come to the children’s houses to ensure that the children are being raised in a nurturing environment. It is currently in the following places in India:

  • Ameri in Chhattisgarh
  • Kalahandi in Odisha
  • Dewas in Madya Pradesh
  • Vattavada in Kerala

Click here to donate to Light to Life

The Marthoma Church also has a mission in Mexico. The church has built a living complex for 45 families called “Colonia Marthoma” in metamoros Mexico to rehabilitate the families of poor fishermen. Food packets are provided on a weekly basis to minimize starvation and malnutrition, so that people can dedicate more time to find jobs. There are also children going to primary school and kindergarten in the complex. Middle school, high school and even college and medical students receive subsidies from the Marthoma Church.

Final Remarks

All in all, the origins of the Marthoma Church trace as far back as 52 AD. The St. Thomas Christians have a long history of providing refuge to persecuted Christians and share a history unique to themselves. Although the Marthoma Church has been influenced by Anglican beliefs, it is still a uniquely Indian and Malayalee Church.

Works Cited

  • “Heritage.” Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, marthoma.in/the-church/heritage/.
  • “Historical Divisions of Mar Thoma Nasranis.” Historical Divisions of Mar Thoma Nasranis, Nasrani Foundation, www.nasranifoundation.org/articles/historicaldivisions.html.
  • “Mar Thomas Sabha History.” Marthoma.org Mar Thomas Sabha History, Sabha News, 28 June 2008, www.marthoma.org/portal/publish/FEATURED/Mar_Thomas_Sabha_History.shtml.
  • “Mission Board.” The Marthoma Church: Diocese of North America and Europe, The Marthoma Church, www.marthomanae.org/website/portaltemplate.php?mainmenu=MISSION&submenu=Mission+Board+&subsubmenu=&subsubsubmenu=.
  • “Mtc-Urban-Missions.” Mtc-Urban-Missions, Neighborhood Missions Ministry of Mar Thoma Church, Diocese of North America & Europe, 2018, www.mtcurbanmissions.org/.
  • “Saint Thomas Christians.” New World Encyclopedia, New World Encyclopedia, 10 Aug. 2015, web.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Saint_Thomas_Christians.

The Effects of Debt


Due to the growing weakness in the global economy, people are looking to pay off the massive credit card balances they have accrued throughout the holiday season. Household debt has reached a record high of $13.68 trillion as of Q2 2019, $9.4 trillion of which is mortgage debt. This has exceeded levels not seen since 2008. The U.S Federal debt is approximately $21.8 trillion and rising. Global debt has reached a high of $247 trillion and rising. The effects of high levels of both public and private debt will result in lower GDP growth in the long term as well as even psychological issues as total private debt increases. Public and private debt has even been shown to influence each other as they both increase and decrease.
Psychological Effects of Debt
A study at the University of Southampton has shown that people in debt are three times more likely to have mental issues. Less than 9% of the participants surveyed had debt while not having mental issues, compared to over 25% of the participants having both mental issues and debt. Another study demonstrated that even thinking about financial insecurity increased pain, people have even admitted that they feel twice the pain recalling financially difficult times vs financially stable times. Moreover, individuals in debt were more likely to suffer from depression, develop psychosis and are even more likely to develop a dependence on drugs; people with debt are more likely to commit suicide than individuals without debt.
All in all, addressing only mental health or debt alone is ineffective, furthermore, if both are addressed but without coordination, the situation still worsens. The only way to help people with mental health issues get out of debt is to coordinate building up their financial health and their mental health.

Effects of Household Debt 
Debt chainball Since the end of the Great Recession, global household debt to GDP has increased dramatically with Switzerland leading the charge at 128.8%, followed by Australia at 121.3% household debt to GDP. The US is ranked at #11 with 77.3% household debt to GDP. According to Mehmet Caner’s Partners in Debt, household debt boosts GDP for only one year, moreover, for every 1% increase of household debt to GDP, it results in a 0.1% decrease in GDP growth in the long run. Once private debt (household debt) to GDP moves pass 60%, consumption decreases dramatically; at 80% private debt to GDP, the negative effect that private debt has on growth increases dramatically. However, lowering debt levels may not increase growth if wages are stagnant.
Effects of Government Debt
The increase of government debt also has adverse long-term effects on the economy as borrowing increases. Once public debt to GDP reaches the tipping point, over 77%, it will result in long-term GDP decline; this number varies for each country, for China and Guatemala, the tipping point is 64%. Once public debt to GDP reaches the 90% mark, any increase of government debt will have a negative impact on GDP growth. This is because as government debt increases, interest payments for the debt increases, which leads to less public investment in infrastructure, education, healthcare, etc. In the United States, interest payments for the federal debt will become the 3rd largest expenditure for the US government by 2048, resulting in less money for defense and infrastructure and higher taxes.
Government debt also has an adverse effect on corporate debt as well. Increases in government debt encourages companies to hold onto cash and other liquid assets due to increased borrowing costs resulting in the supply of safer debt instruments, as a result, companies will have to pay a higher interest rate to attract investors. They are also less likely to invest because borrowing costs driven up by government bonds. According to Wharton Business School, increases in government debt will decrease corporate debt by a third, in the long run; however, this is not the case now, because of low interest rates. Finally, lenders are also affected by the ebb and flow of government debt as well; for every one percent bank, pension funds, and insurance companies loan the government, corporate lending by these groups drops by 4-12 basis points, resulting in less economic growth and fewer jobs.

Debt Interaction Equation
Debt Interaction Equation

Public Private Debt Interaction
Now that we have gone over the effects of both public debt and private debt on their own, we will now go over the effects the interaction of public debt with private debt. We can see the interaction of public and private debt when the government guarantees debt, which converts the private debt to public debt; mortgages and student loans are some examples of debt guaranteed by the government. Debt interaction reaches dangerous levels when they exceed levels of 137%; according to Ohio State University’s Mehmet Caner, twelve out of the 29 countries, he studied are either at this critical juncture or have exceeded it. The U.S debt interaction stands at 203% during the period of 2009-2014, other offenders include the following: Japan at 543.07%, Ireland at 406.7%, Portugal at 364.61%, Italy at 226.11% and Spain at 203.8% debt interaction.
High levels of debt interaction have reduced GDP growth for the U.S by 0.43%, total debt, both public and private, reduced U.S GDP growth by .83% from 2009-2014. Decreases in public debt can reduce any increases of private debt and vice versa and increases to both will harm growth in the long run.

Debt Interaction Table

Public Private Debt Interaction
United States


All in all, the increase in global debt is beginning to put the global economy on a dangerous precipice. The U.S alone has $21 trillion in public debt and $13.51 trillion in private debt and there is $247 trillion in global debt, which is 318% of global GDP. The effects of high debt for consumers includes mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety, and long-term reduction in GDP, resulting in fewer jobs and less wage growth. The effects of increasing public debt will result in higher taxes and less services for the populace, as debt payments become a larger part of the budget. Even the interaction of public and private debt has negative implications on growth as well.


Caner, Mehmet, et al. “Partners in Debt: An Endogenous Nonlinear Analysis of Interaction of Public and Private Debt on Growth.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 27 May 2018, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3186077.
“The Emotional Effects of Debt - Denial, Stress, Fear, Depression.” Debt.org, Debt.org, 2019, www.debt.org/advice/emotional-effects/.
“The Fiscal & Economic Impact of the National Debt.” Peter G. Peterson Foundation, Peter G. Peterson Foundation, 2019, www.pgpf.org/the-fiscal-and-economic-challenge/fiscal-and-economic-impact.
Grabmeier, Jeff. “How the United States Landed in a Debt 'Danger Zone'.” Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology, Phys.org, 21 Aug. 2018, phys.org/news/2018-08-states-debt-danger-zone.html.
“Household Debt Hit a Record High of $13.5 Trillion Last Quarter.” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, 26 Nov. 2018, www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/household-debt-hit-record-high-13-5-trillion-last-quarter-n937216.
Jenkins, Rachel, et al. Recession, Debt and Mental Health: Challenges and Solutions. US National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health, 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777607/.Research.
“Government Debt Issues Can Raise Corporate Bond Costs.” Knowledge@Wharton, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, 25 Mar. 2015, knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-important-role-of-government-debt-in-shaping-corporate-behavior/.
“Study Finds National Debt 'Tipping Point' That Slows Economic Growth.” Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology, Phys.org, 28 Sept. 2010, phys.org/news/2010-09-national-debt-economic-growth.html#nRlv.

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